Beginners Guide to Motherboards
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Find sources: — · · · · November 2012 PCI expansion slot Inthe expansion card, expansion board, adapter card or accessory card is a that can be inserted into anor expansion slot, on a computeror to add functionality to a computer system via the expansion bus.
An expansion bus is a which moves information between the internal hardware of a computer system including the and and peripheral devices.
It is a collection of wires and that allows for the expansion of a computer.
Main article: Even vacuum-tube based computers had modular construction, but individual functions for peripheral devices filled a cabinet, not just a printed circuit board.
Expansion cards allowed a processor system to be adapted to the needs of the user, allowing variations in the type of devices connected, additions to memory, or optional features to the central processor such as a.
Minicomputers, starting with thewere made of multiple cards, all powered by and communicating through a passive.
The first commercial to feature expansion slots was thein 1973.
The first company to establish a was thedeveloped 1974-1975, which later became a multi-manufacturer standard, the bus.
Proprietary implementations for systems such as the co-existed with multi-manufacturer standards.
At that time, the technology was called the PC bus.
Theintroduced in 1983, used the same bus with slight exception.
The 8-bit PC and XT bus was extended with the introduction of the IBM AT in 1984.
This used a second connector for extending the address and data bus over the XT, but was backward compatible; 8-bit cards were still usable in the AT 16-bit slots.
Industry Standard Architecture ISA became the designation for the IBM AT bus after other types were developed.
EISA, the 32-bit extended version of ISA championed bywas used on some PC motherboards until 1997, when Microsoft declared it a "legacy" subsystem in the industry white-paper.
Proprietary local buses q.
Compaq and then the Standard, were late 1980s expansion buses that were tied but not exclusive to the 80386 and 80486 bus.
The bus is an bus that copies the ISA bus.
Intel launched their chipsets along with the -based CPUs in 1993.
The bus was introduced in 1991 as a replacement for ISA.
The standard now at version 3.
The PCI standard supports bus bridging: as many what are old slot cars worth ten daisy chained PCI buses have been tested.
Cardbus is being supplanted by format.
AGP devices are logically attached to the PCI bus over a PCI-to-PCI bridge.
Though termed a bus, AGP usually supports what are expansion slots in a computer case a single card at a time support issues.
From 2005 PCI-Express has been replacing both PCI and AGP.
For their and models, Tandy Computer designed the PLUS expansion interface, an adaptation of the XT-bus supporting cards of a smaller form factor.
Because it is electrically compatible with the XT bus a.
Another feature of PLUS cards is that they are stackable.
Another bus that offered stackable expansion modules was the "sidecar" bus used by the IBM.
Again, PCjr sidecars are not technically expansion cards, but expansion modules, with the only difference being that the sidecar is an expansion card enclosed in a plastic box with holes exposing the connectors.
Apple used a proprietary system with seven 50-pin-slots forthen later used the for its Macintosh series until 1995, when they switched to a PCI Bus.
Generally, PCI expansion cards will function on any platform if there is a software driver for that type.
PCI video cards and other cards that contain a are problematic, although video cards conforming to VESA Standards may be used for secondary monitors.
DEC Alpha, IBM PowerPC, and NEC MIPS workstations used PCI bus connectors.
Both Zorro II and NuBus wererequiring no hardware configuration by the user.
Even many video game consoles, such as theincluded expansion buses; at least in the case of the Genesis, the expansion bus was proprietary, and in fact the cartridge slots of many cartridge based consoles not including the would qualify as expansion buses, as they exposed both read and write capabilities of the system's internal bus.
However, the expansion modules attached to these interfaces, though functionally the same as expansion cards, are not technically expansion cards, due to what are expansion slots in a computer case physical form.
Other computer buses were used for industrial control, instruments, and scientific systems.
Some of these standadards were, and others.
Several compact expansion standards were developed.
The original expansion card standard is essentially a compact version of the ISA bus.
The expansion card standard is an evolution of the PC card standard to make it into a compact version of the PCI bus.
The original standard acts like it is either a USB 2.
Unfortunately, CardBus and ExpressCard are vulnerable to unless the laptop has an IOMMU that is configured to thwart these attacks.
For example, the original did not have on-board graphics or hard drive capability.
In that case, a graphics card and an hard disk controller card provided graphics capability and hard drive interface respectively.
Some made no provision for expansion cards, and may only have provided IC sockets on the board for limited changes or customization.
Since reliable multi-pin connectors are relatively costly, some mass-market systems such as had no expansion slots and instead used a card- at the edge of the main board, putting the costly matching socket into the cost of the peripheral device.
In the case of expansion of on-board capability, a motherboard may provide a or port.
An expansion card can be installed to offer multiple RS232 ports or multiple and higher bandwidth ports.
In this case, the motherboard provides basic functionality but the expansion card offers additional or enhanced ports.
They establish the electrical contact between the electronics on the card and on the motherboard.
Peripheral expansion cards generally have connectors for external cables.
In the PC-compatible personal computer, these connectors were located in the support bracket at the back of the cabinet.
Industrial backplane systems had connectors mounted on the top edge of the card, opposite to the backplane pins.
Depending on the of the motherboard andaround one to seven expansion cards can be added to a computer system.
When many expansion cards are added to a system, total power consumption and heat dissipation become limiting factors.
Some expansion cards take up more than one slot space.
For example, what are expansion slots in a computer case on the market as of 2010 are dual slot graphics cards, using the second slot as a place to put an active with a fan.
Some cards are "low-profile" cards, meaning that they are shorter than standard cards and will fit in a lower height computer chassis.
There is a "low profile PCI card" standard that specifies a much smaller bracket and board area.
Daughterboards often have plugs, sockets, pins or other attachments for other boards.
Daughterboards often have only internal connections within a computer or other electronic devices, and usually access the motherboard directly rather than through a.
Daughterboards are sometimes used in computers in order to allow for expansion cards to fit parallel to the motherboard, usually to maintain a small.
This form are also calledor risers.
Daughterboards are also sometimes used to expand the basic functionality of an electronic device, how are programmed to win as when a certain model has features added to it and is released as a new or separate model.
Rather than redesigning the first model completely, what are expansion slots in a computer case daughterboard may be added to a special connector on the main board.
These usually fit on top of and parallel to the board, separated byand are sometimes called mezzanine cards due to being stacked like the of a.
Some mezzanine card interface standards include the 400 pin FMC ; the 172 pin High Speed Mezzanine Card HSMC ; the PMC ; XMC mezzanines; the ; IndustryPacks VITA 4the ; etc.
Commonly integrates: bus interfaces logic,and Magnetics onto a single board.
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Motherboard Expansion Slots and Bus Speeds - CompTIA A+ 220-901 - 1.2
Adding the blower plus these extra vents: SilverStone AEROSLOT Maximum Vented PCI Slot Covers below the card to vent the air directly out the back made my case noticeably cooler to the touch (+/-15F cooler according to the computer's sensors). Unfortunately, this week I turned on my comp to a horrible grinding noise coming from the blower.
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